Martini Hospital


Basic Tips on How to Compose a Research Paper Bibliography

A bibliography or reference list is an imperative component of any research paper. The main goal of referencing is to protect copyrights. To compose a good bibliography you should follow these steps:

  1. Keep records.
  2. Create a separate file to record information about all literature used. Write down the author’s forename and surname. Put down the full name of the article or book. Find information about the publisher. Specify the year of publication. Alphabetize.

    Use ABC order for the listed sources. The order criterion is the surname of the author. Use the name of the article if its author is not listed.

  3. Choose a citation style.
  4. Diverse quotation styles are used in various scientific publications. The most generally used formats are: Chicago formatting, APA style, and MLA format. To decide on the proper formatting, several aspects should be taken into account: the scientific field, academic standards, research goals of the task, and personal requirements of the supervisor. Every quotation has to contain a minimum volume of information depending on the style used. It makes the difference what source to use when you start to format the data of the record. Formatting also regulates what information to take.

  5. Put down the author's name.
  6. In the beginning of each entry put the surname of the author and then the forename. Separate them by a comma. For newspapers, don’t use abbreviations in the name of the author. If there is a need to cite an article with several authors, put them in order as they are listed in a given newspaper. Quote additional authors with forenames followed by surnames.

  7. Put down the article title.
  8. Quote the name of the source, use quotation marks. Put a period after the name of the article or book.

  9. Put down the source title.
  10. Use a cursive font to record the title of the article, book, newspaper, or web page. Specify page and volume numbers for newspapers. Note the publishing dates for web articles. Use different fonts (italicized and not italicized) for different web information (articles, reports etc.).

  11. Give the publisher details.
  12. Specify the publisher details. You can take it from a book or any other source used. Start from the name of the city where the publisher is situated. After that goes the name of the publisher. It is followed by the date of the publication.

  13. A little bit more about citing magazine articles or those from the web.
  14. Put the date of publication, after that specify the pages where people can find the article in the magazine. For a web site, it is required to put the date of access. Follow it by the URL. Use angle brackets.